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勞動(dòng)權益的地區差異——基于對珠三角和長(cháng)三角地區外來(lái)工的問(wèn)卷調查
劉林平 雍昕 舒玢玢
《中國社會(huì )科學(xué)》2011年第2期
2011-05-04
中文摘要:
  如何正確處理勞資關(guān)系,保護外來(lái)工(農民工)權益已成為中國社會(huì )面臨的重大問(wèn)題。在外來(lái)工勞動(dòng)權益的現有研究中,地區差異是一個(gè)尚未得到應有重視的議題。依據對珠三角和長(cháng)三角地區外來(lái)工大規模問(wèn)卷調查的分析發(fā)現:在31項有關(guān)權益保障的重要指標中,珠三角和長(cháng)三角地區有22項存在顯著(zhù)差異,除工傷保險和帶薪休假外,其余20項,長(cháng)三角均好于珠三角地區,特別表現在工資水平、勞動(dòng)合同簽訂率、社會(huì )保險購買(mǎi)率和工作環(huán)境等方面。在控制人力資本和企業(yè)特征之后,兩地仍然存在重要的地區差異。引起地區差異的主要原因是:珠三角最低工資標準低于長(cháng)三角地區;珠三角《勞動(dòng)合同法》的落實(shí)力度不如長(cháng)三角地區;珠三角企業(yè)中本地人所占比例較長(cháng)三角地區低,人口密度和結構影響了企業(yè)管理制度。研究認為,長(cháng)三角地區企業(yè)更多采用“人情型”管理模式,這種管理模式主要不是通過(guò)企業(yè)所有制性質(zhì)來(lái)體現,而是與本地工人比例密切相關(guān)。嘗試用“地域—社會(huì )—文化”的解釋思路,并以地方公民身份等概念觀(guān)照影響勞動(dòng)權益地區差異的制度環(huán)境,有助于對問(wèn)題的把握。

英文摘要:
  The correct handling of laborcapital relations and protection of the rights of rural migrant workers has become a significant problem facing Chinese society. Current research on the rights of such workers has failed to give due attention to the issue of regional differences. We conducted a largescale survey of migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, with the following findings: 22 out of 31 major indicators of rights protection show significant differences in the two regions. The Yangtze River Delta performs better than the Pearl River Delta in terms of 20 indicators (other than paid vacations and employment injury insurance), especially with regard to wage levels, conclusion of employment contracts, purchase of social insurance and the working environment. After controlling for human capital and enterprise characteristics, major differences remain between the two regions. These regional differences are mainly attributable to the following factors: the Yangtze River Delta has a higher minimum wage; it enforces the Employment Contract Law more vigorously; and it has more employees native to the region. Enterprise management models are affected by demographic density and structural factors. Our study finds that enterprises in the Yangtze River Delta tend to adopt a “personal relations” management model, which is closely related to the proportion of native employees rather than to business ownership. It would be fruitful to try a “regionsocietyculture” explanatory approach and use concepts such as local citizenship to examine the institutional environment leading to regional differences in labor rights.